Thanks to study lead author David Ludwig, MD, PhD, (@DavidLudwigMD) for letting me know about his latest publication, and noting, his helpful addition to my graphic above:
Thx. The 135 kcal/d effect reflects only moderate differences in carb among test diets in the trials.
Per 10% â¬‡ï¸ in carb, the effect is 50 kcal/d.
Thus reducing carbs from 60 to 20% might produce 200 kcal/d … just what we did and saw in our BMJ study.https://t.co/1eCTRsABR0
Following weight loss, people on lower carbohydrate diets were able to eat more food to keep their weight stable than people on high carbohydrate low-fat diets, putting another nail in the coffin of low fat diets and â€œcalories-in/calories-out”
This study (a meta-analysis) expands on work done over the last 30 years by (a) combining the results of studies and (b) partitioning studies by their duration, because itâ€™s known that it may take the body several days/weeks/months to adapt to a low-carbohydrate diet. In the adaptation phase, there may be a slowing of metabolism and other side effects.
The net increase in total energy expenditure for studies lasting longer than 17 days is 135 calories a day. A feeding study in 2018 showed even greater increases based on the underlying metabolic health of subjects. See: Just Read: The Metabolic Advantages of a Lower Carbohydrate Diet
Additional information/copyright for the forest plot figure: Forest plot of total energy expenditure effect among 29 trials comparing lower- and higher-carbohydrate diets. Trials are listed according to intervention duration in ascending order (i.e., shortest duration at top). Full citations for the individual trials can be found in Supplementary Data.
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- Ludwig DS, Dickinson SL, Henschel B, Ebbeling CB, Allison DB. Do Lower-Carbohydrate Diets Increase Total Energy Expenditure? An Updated and Reanalyzed Meta-Analysis of 29 Controlled-Feeding Studies. J Nutr [Internet]. 2020 Dec 3; Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa350
- Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Klein GL, Wong JMW, Bielak L, Steltz SK, et al. Effects of a low carbohydrate diet on energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance: randomized trial. BMJ [Internet]. 2018;363:4583. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k4583